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Vincent van Gogh

His paintings include harvests, wheat fields and general rural landmarks from the area, including The Old Mill , a picturesque structure bordering the wheat fields. The portrayals of the Arles landscape are informed by Van Gogh's Dutch upbringing; the patchworks of fields and avenues appear flat and lacking perspective , but excel in their use of colour. The rooms were unfurnished and had been uninhabited for months. The Yellow House had to be furnished before he could fully move in, but he was able to use it as a studio.

Bedroom in Arles , The Old Mill , When Gauguin agreed to visit Arles in , Van Gogh hoped for friendship, and the realisation of his idea of an artists' collective. While waiting, in August he painted Sunflowers. In preparation for Gauguin's visit, Van Gogh bought two beds on advice from the station's postal supervisor Joseph Roulin , whose portrait he painted. On 17 September, he spent his first night in the still sparsely furnished Yellow House. Among these "imaginative" paintings is Memory of the Garden at Etten.

They often quarrelled; Van Gogh increasingly feared that Gauguin was going to desert him, and the situation, which Van Gogh described as one of "excessive tension", rapidly headed towards crisis point. The Red Vineyard , November Pushkin Museum , Moscow. Sold to Anna Boch , Van Gogh's Chair , National Gallery , London. The exact sequence of events which led to Van Gogh's mutilation of his ear is not known. Gauguin stated, 15 years later, that the night followed several instances of physically threatening behaviour. After the altercation with Gauguin, Van Gogh returned to his room, where he was assaulted by voices and severed his left ear with a razor either wholly or in part; accounts differ , [note 9] causing severe bleeding.

The ear was delivered to the hospital, but Rey did not attempt to reattach it as too much time had passed. Van Gogh had no recollection of the event, suggesting that he may have suffered an acute mental breakdown. He arrived on Christmas Day and comforted Vincent, who seemed to be semi-lucid. That evening he left Arles for the return trip to Paris.

During the first days of his treatment, Van Gogh repeatedly and unsuccessfully asked for Gauguin, who asked a policeman attending the case to "be kind enough, Monsieur, to awaken this man with great care, and if he asks for me tell him I have left for Paris; the sight of me might prove fatal for him. They continued to correspond and in Gauguin proposed they form a studio in Antwerp. Meanwhile, other visitors to the hospital included Marie Ginoux and Roulin. Despite a pessimistic diagnosis, Van Gogh recovered and returned to the Yellow House on 7 January Paul Signac visited him twice in March; [] in April Van Gogh moved into rooms owned by Dr Rey after floods damaged paintings in his own home.

Around this time, he wrote, "Sometimes moods of indescribable anguish, sometimes moments when the veil of time and fatality of circumstances seemed to be torn apart for an instant. The physician was not fond of the painting and used it to repair a chicken coop, then gave it away. Van Gogh had two cells with barred windows, one of which he used as a studio.

Some of his works from this time are characterised by swirls, such as The Starry Night. He was allowed short supervised walks, during which time he painted cypresses and olive trees, including Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background , Cypresses , Cornfield with Cypresses , Country road in Provence by Night In September he produced two further versions of Bedroom in Arles. Limited access to life outside the clinic resulted in a shortage of subject matter. Van Gogh instead worked on interpretations of other artist's paintings , such as Millet 's The Sower and Noonday Rest , and variations on his own earlier work.

Van Gogh was an admirer of the Realism of Jules Breton , Gustave Courbet and Millet, [] and he compared his copies to a musician's interpreting Beethoven. Tralbaut suggests that the face of the prisoner in the centre of the painting looking towards the viewer is Van Gogh himself; [] Jan Hulsker discounts this. Between February and April Van Gogh suffered a severe relapse. Depressed and unable to bring himself to write, he was still able to paint and draw a little during this time, [] and he later wrote to Theo that he had made a few small canvases "from memory Hulsker believes that this small group of paintings formed the nucleus of many drawings and study sheets depicting landscapes and figures that Van Gogh worked on during this time.

He comments that this short period was the only time that Van Gogh's illness had a significant effect on his work. Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Foundation E. Albert Aurier praised his work in the Mercure de France in January , and described him as "a genius". Toulouse-Lautrec demanded satisfaction, and Signac declared he would continue to fight for Van Gogh's honour if Lautrec surrendered. De Groux apologised for the slight and left the group.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gachet was an amateur painter and had treated several other artists — Camille Pissarro had recommended him. Van Gogh's first impression was that Gachet was "iller than I am, it seemed to me, or let's say just as much. In July , Van Gogh completed two paintings of Daubigny's Garden , one of which is likely his final work. In each the emphasis is on Gachet's melancholic disposition.

Reading | Vincent van Gogh

In July, Van Gogh wrote that he had become absorbed "in the immense plain against the hills, boundless as the sea, delicate yellow". In July, he described to Theo "vast fields of wheat under turbulent skies". He wrote that they represented his "sadness and extreme loneliness", and that the "canvases will tell you what I cannot say in words, that is, how healthy and invigorating I find the countryside". He was able to walk back to the Auberge Ravoux , where he was attended to by two doctors, but without a surgeon present the bullet could not be removed.

The doctors tended to him as best they could, then left him alone in his room, smoking his pipe. The following morning Theo rushed to his brother's side, finding him in good spirits. But within hours Vincent began to fail, suffering from an untreated infection resulting from the wound. He died in the early hours of 29 July. According to Theo, Vincent's last words were: "The sadness will last forever". Van Gogh was buried on 30 July, in the municipal cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise.

Theo had been ill, and his health began to decline further after his brother's death. Weak and unable to come to terms with Vincent's absence, he died on 25 January at Den Dolder , and was buried in Utrecht. There have been numerous debates as to the nature of Van Gogh's illness and its effect on his work, and many retrospective diagnoses have been proposed.

Vincent van Gogh /

The consensus is that Van Gogh had an episodic condition with periods of normal functioning. The gun van Gogh was reputed to have used was rediscovered in and was auctioned, on 19 June , as "the most famous weapon in art history". Van Gogh drew, and painted with watercolours while at school, but only a few examples survive and the authorship of some has been challenged.

In early , his uncle, Cornelis Marinus, owner of a well-known gallery of contemporary art in Amsterdam, asked for drawings of The Hague. Van Gogh's work did not live up to expectations. Marinus offered a second commission, specifying the subject matter in detail, but was again disappointed with the result. Van Gogh persevered; he experimented with lighting in his studio using variable shutters, and with different drawing materials.


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Later, they were recognised as early masterpieces. In August Theo gave Vincent money to buy materials for working en plein air. Vincent wrote that he could now "go on painting with new vigour". He had some of them photographed, but when his brother remarked that they lacked liveliness and freshness, he destroyed them and turned to oil painting.

Who was Vincent van Gogh?

Van Gogh turned to well-known Hague School artists like Weissenbruch and Blommers , and received technical advice from them, as well as from painters like De Bock and Van der Weele , both of the Hague School's second generation. The Potato Eaters and its companion pieces are the only ones to have survived.

Theo criticised The Potato Eaters for its dark palette, which he thought unsuitable for a modern style. Van Gogh came to believe that the effect of colour went beyond the descriptive; he said that "colour expresses something in itself".

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He used yellow as a symbol for sunlight, life, and God. Van Gogh strove to be a painter of rural life and nature, [] and during his first summer in Arles he used his new palette to paint landscapes and traditional rural life. Van Gogh stayed within what he called the "guise of reality", [] and was critical of overly stylised works. Between and his death in , Van Gogh appears to have been building an oeuvre , [] a collection that reflected his personal vision, and could be commercially successful. He was influenced by Blanc's definition of style, that a true painting required optimal use of colour, perspective and brushstrokes.

Van Gogh applied the word "purposeful" to paintings he thought he had mastered, as opposed to those he thought of as studies. With their broad brushstrokes, inventive perspectives, colours, contours and designs, these paintings represent the style he sought.


  • As We Go Marching: A Biting Indictment of the Coming of Domestic Fascism in America.
  • A Chronology of Vincent van Gogh's Life;
  • Vincent van Gogh Timeline.
  • Van Gogh's stylistic developments are usually linked to the periods he spent living in different places across Europe. He was inclined to immerse himself in local cultures and lighting conditions, although he maintained a highly individual visual outlook throughout. His evolution as an artist was slow, and he was aware of his painterly limitations.