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From Paradise to Paradigm: A Study of Twelfth-Century Humanism (Brill's Studies in Intellectual History) [Professor of the Theology and History of Christianity.
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Skinner 's behaviorism. This psychological perspective helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good. It encourages viewing ourselves as a "whole person" greater than the sum of our parts and encourages self exploration rather than the study of behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the psyche.

It is linked to the emerging field of transpersonal psychology. Primarily, this type of therapy encourages a self-awareness and mindfulness that helps the client change their state of mind and behaviour from one set of reactions to a healthier one with more productive self-awareness and thoughtful actions. Essentially, this approach allows the merging of mindfulness and behavioural therapy, with positive social support.

In an article from the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the benefits of humanistic therapy are described as having a "crucial opportunity to lead our troubled culture back to its own healthy path. More than any other therapy, Humanistic-Existential therapy models democracy. It imposes ideologies of others upon the client less than other therapeutic practices.

Freedom to choose is maximized. We validate our clients' human potential. In the 20th century, humanistic psychology was referred to as the "third force" in psychology, distinct from earlier, less humanistic approaches of psychoanalysis and behaviorism. One of humanistic psychology's early sources was the work of Carl Rogers , who was strongly influenced by Otto Rank , who broke with Freud in the mids.

Rogers' focus was to ensure that the developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning.

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The term 'actualizing tendency' was also coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans. The other sources of inspiration include the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology. The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought [9] see Kierkegaard , Nietzsche , Heidegger , Merleau-Ponty and Sartre. Eastern philosophy and psychology also play a central role in humanistic psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian philosophies of personalism , as each shares similar concerns about the nature of human existence and consciousness.

As behaviorism grew out of Ivan Pavlov 's work with the conditioned reflex, and laid the foundations for academic psychology in the United States associated with the names of John B.

2017 Personality 10: Humanism & Phenomenology: Carl Rogers

Watson and B. Skinner ; Abraham Maslow gave behaviorism the name "the second force". In the late s, psychologists, interested in the uniquely human issues, such as the self , self-actualization , health , hope , love , creativity , nature , being , becoming , individuality , and meaning—that is, a concrete understanding of human existence—included Abraham Maslow , Carl Rogers , and Clark Moustakas , who were interested in founding a professional association dedicated to a psychology focused on these features of human capital demanded by post-industrial society.

The humanistic psychology perspective is summarized by five core principles or postulates of humanistic psychology first articulated in an article written by James Bugental in [11] and adapted by Tom Greening, [12] psychologist and long-time editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. While humanistic psychology is a specific division within the American Psychological Association Division 32 , [14] humanistic psychology is not so much a discipline within psychology as a perspective on the human condition that informs psychological research and practice.

WWII created practical pressures on military psychologists, they had more patients to see and care for than time or resources permitted. The origins of group therapy are here. Humanistic psychologists generally do not believe that we will understand human consciousness and behavior through Cartesian-Newtonian scientific research.

However, humanistic psychology has involved scientific research of human behavior since its inception. For example:. A human science view is not opposed to quantitative methods, but, following Edmund Husserl :. Research has remained part of the humanistic psychology agenda, though with more of a holistic than reductionistic focus. Specific humanistic research methods evolved in the decades following the formation of the humanistic psychology movement.

These preliminary meetings eventually led to other developments, which culminated in the description of humanistic psychology as a recognizable "third force" in psychology first force: psychoanalysis, second force: behaviorism. In November key figures in the movement gathered at Old Saybrook CT for the first invitational conference on Humanistic psychology.

Among the intentions of the participants was to formulate a new vision for psychology that, in their view, took into consideration a more complete image of the person than the image presented by the current trends of Behaviorism and Freudian psychology. The conference has been described as a historic event that was important for the academic status of Humanistic psychology [38] and its future aspirations. Subsequently, graduate programs in Humanistic Psychology at institutions of higher learning grew in number and enrollment.

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Division 32 publishes its own academic journal called The Humanistic Psychologist. Maslow was heavily influenced by Kurt Goldstein during their years together at Brandeis University. Psychoanalytic writers also influenced humanistic psychology. Maslow himself famously acknowledged his "indebtedness to Freud" in Towards a Psychology of Being [40] Other psychoanalytic influences include the work of Wilhelm Reich , who discussed an essentially 'good', healthy core self and Character Analysis , and Carl Gustav Jung 's mythological and archetypal emphasis.

Schneider , and Ken Wilber. The aim of humanistic therapy is usually to help the client develop a stronger and healthier sense of self, also called self-actualization. This type of therapy is insight-based, meaning that the therapist attempts to provide the client with insights about their inner conflicts. Humanistic psychology includes several approaches to counseling and therapy. Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslow , emphasizing a hierarchy of needs and motivations; the existential psychology of Rollo May acknowledging human choice and the tragic aspects of human existence; and the person-centered or client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers , which is centered on the client's capacity for self-direction and understanding of his or her own development.

A therapist cannot be completely non-directive; however, a nonjudgmental, accepting environment that provides unconditional positive regard will encourage feelings of acceptance and value. Existential psychotherapies , an application of humanistic psychology, applies existential philosophy , which emphasizes the idea that humans have the freedom to make sense of their lives. They are free to define themselves and do whatever it is they want to do.

This is a type of humanistic therapy that forces the client to explore the meaning of their life, as well as its purpose. There is a conflict between having freedoms and having limitations.

BSIH 127 Otten - From Paradise to Paradigm_A Study of Twelfth-Century Humanism 2004.pdf

Examples of limitations include genetics, culture, and many other factors. Existential therapy involves trying to resolve this conflict. Another approach to humanistic counseling and therapy is Gestalt therapy , which puts a focus on the here and now, especially as an opportunity to look past any preconceived notions and focus on how the present is affected by the past.

Role playing also plays a large role in Gestalt therapy and allows for a true expression of feelings that may not have been shared in other circumstances. In Gestalt therapy, non-verbal cues are an important indicator of how the client may actually be feeling, despite the feelings expressed. Also part of the range of humanistic psychotherapy are concepts from depth therapy , holistic health , encounter groups , sensitivity training , marital and family therapies , body work , the existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss , [4] and Positive Psychology.

Most recently Compassionate Communication, the rebranding of Nonviolent Communication of Marshall Rosenberg seems to be the leading edge of innovation in this field because it is one of very few psychologies with both a simple and clear model of the human psyche and a simple and clear methodology, suitable for any two persons to address and resolve interpersonal conflict without expert intervention, a first in the field.

George Kelly's humanistic theory is based on Fundamental Postulate, where a person acts on anticipation of future events. Stating that a person's actions are based on expectation of possible events and interpretation from past circumstances.

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Empathy is one of the most important aspects of humanistic therapy. This idea focuses on the therapist's ability to see the world through the eyes of the client.

Book From Paradise To Paradigm A Study Of Twelfth Century Humanism

Without this, therapists can be forced to apply an external frame of reference where the therapist is no longer understanding the actions and thoughts of the client as the client would, but strictly as a therapist which defeats the purpose of humanistic therapy. Included in empathizing, unconditional positive regard is one of the key elements of humanistic psychology. Unconditional positive regard refers to the care that the therapist needs to have for the client.

This ensures that the therapist does not become the authority figure in the relationship allowing for a more open flow of information as well as a kinder relationship between the two. A therapist practicing humanistic therapy needs to show a willingness to listen and ensure the comfort of the patient where genuine feelings may be shared but are not forced upon someone.

Self-help is also part of humanistic psychology: Sheila Ernst and Lucy Goodison have described using some of the main humanistic approaches in self-help groups.

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One can only improve once they decide to change their ways of thinking about themselves, once they decide to help themselves. Co-counselling , which is an approach based purely on self-help, is regarded as coming from humanistic psychology as well. The ideal self and real self involve understanding the issues that arise from having an idea of what you wish you were as a person, and having that not match with who you actually are as a person incongruence. The ideal self is what a person believes should be done, as well as what their core values are.

The real self is what is actually played out in life. Through humanistic therapy, an understanding of the present allows clients to add positive experiences to their real self-concept. The goal is to have the two concepts of self become congruent. Rogers believed that only when a therapist was able to be congruent, a real relationship occurs in therapy. It is much easier to trust someone who is willing to share feelings openly, even if it may not be what the client always wants; this allows the therapist to foster a strong relationship.


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Humanistic psychology tends to look beyond the medical model of psychology in order to open up a non-pathologizing view of the person. Humanistic psychology tries to be a science of human experience, focusing on the actual lived experience of persons. The role of the therapist is to create an environment where the client can freely express any thoughts or feelings; he does not suggest topics for conversation nor does he guide the conversation in any way.

The therapist also does not analyze or interpret the client's behavior or any information the client shares. The role of the therapist is to provide empathy and to listen attentively to the client. While personal transformation may be the primary focus of most humanistic psychologists, many also investigate pressing social, cultural, and gender issues. Relevant work was not confined to these pioneer thinkers. In , members of the Association for Humanistic Psychology AHP embarked on a three-year effort to explore how the principles of humanistic psychology could be used to further the process of positive social and political change.

It proffered such ideas as moving to a slow-growth or no-growth economy, decentralizing and "deprofessionalizing" society, and teaching social and emotional competencies in order to provide a foundation for more humane public policies and a healthier culture. There have been many other attempts to articulate humanistic-psychology-oriented approaches to social change.

For example, in psychologist Kenneth Lux and economist Mark A.